March 14, 2017

What are the limitations of integrated circuits?

The integrated circuits have few limitations also, as listed below:

  1. In an IC the various components are part of a small semi-conductor and the individual component or components cannot be removed, replaced, therefore, if any component in an IC fails, the whole IC has replaced by the new one. 
  2. Limited power rating as it is not possible to manufacture high power greater than 10 Watt) ICs.
  3. Need of connecting inductors and transformers exterior to the conductor chip as it is not possible to fabricate inductors and transform on the semi-conductor chip surface. 
  4. Operations at low voltage as ICs function at fairly low voltage.
  5. Quite delicate in handling as these cannot withstand rough handling or excessive heat. 
  6. Need of connecting capacitor exterior to the semi-conductor chip as it is neither convenient nor economical to fabricate capacitances exceeding 30pF. Therefore, for higher values of capacitance, discrete components, exterior to IC chip are connected. 
  7. High grade P-N-P assembly is not possible.
  8. Low temperature coefficient is difficult to be achieved.
  9. Difficult to fabricate an IC with low noise.
  10. Large value of saturation resistance of transistors.
  11. Voltage dependence of resistors and capacitors.
  12. The diffusion processes and other related procedures used in the fabrication process are not good enough to permit a precise control of the parameter values for the circuit elements. However, control of the ratios is at a sufficiently acceptable level. 


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